Author Guidelines


Competitive papers: maximum 12-15 pages (including the abstract and references). Work-in-progress papers: 500-800 words (excluding references)


  • The 11-point Arial font must be used.
  • Submissions should be typed in 1.5-line spacing, including references. Do not use double-spacing anywhere.
  • Submissions should have margins of 2 cm all round.
  • Page numbers are to be placed in the lower right-hand corner of every page.
  • Do not use any tab indents for paragraphs.
  • Do not number paragraphs.
  • The text must preferably be limited to three levels. Main headings are presented in capitals (bold); sub-headings in lower case (bold),
    and sub-sub headings in normal (unbolded) text, lower case, for example:

    Sampling procedure
    Composition of sample


  • Since all papers are electronically submitted, the submission needs to be submitted as two PDF files comprised of:
    1. a SEPARATE title page with author information and,
    2. an anonymous manuscript for review.
  • Full papers
    start with the title of your paper, followed by the abstract (maximum 150 words) and the keywords, then introduction … and the rest of your paper.
  • Work-in-Progress papers
    submission of an abstract consisting of a maximum of 500-800 words (excluding references). The abstract should provide a substantive summary of the paper. It should be informative, giving the reader an overview of the paper (or the envisaged paper/research).


  • Tables should have a table number starting at 1 and a heading,
  • which should be aligned to the left margin before the table is provided.
  • The table number and title should be typed on separate lines, in capital letters.
  • Tables should be embedded in the text.
  • All rows and columns should be clearly labelled.
  • No more than 2 decimal points should be provided.
  • Font should be Arial 11 and Tables should be single-spaced.
  • A reference should be provided below the table.


  • Figures should have a figure number starting at 1 and a heading, which should be aligned to the left margin before the figure is provided.
  • The figure should be clear and add value to the paper.
  • A reference should be provided below the figure.
  • The figure number and title should be typed on separate lines, in capital letters.
  • Figures should be embedded in the text.
  • Figures and artwork must be of high quality and camera ready. Please avoid the use of grey-scale shading.
  • In the text, all illustrations and charts should be referred to as figures.


Mathematical notations should be clearly explained in the text. Equations should be centered in the page. If equations are numbered, type the number in parentheses flush with the right margin. Unusual symbols and Greek letters should be identified. For equations that may be too wide to fit in a single column, indicate appropriate breaks.


Use the Harvard method of referencing.

Citations within the text

Citations in the text should include the author’s last name and year of publication enclosed in parentheses, for example, (Jones, 2019). If practical, the citation should be placed immediately before a punctuation mark. Otherwise, insert in a logical sentence break.

If a particular page, section, or equation is cited, it should be placed within the parentheses, for example, (Jones, 2019:112).

For multiple authors, use the first time in full if a source is cited irrespective of the number of authors. For subsequent citations of three authors and more use “et al.” (in italics). For example: (Smith, Wesson, Brown and Green, 2015). and afterwards, (Smith et al., 2015).

If the same authors published another work in the same year, a distinction must be made by using a lower caps a or b. For example:(Smith, Wesson, Brown, and Green, 2015a).

In the case of multi-authors and different dates of publication, list it in order of the latest publication first. Authors’ names should not be listed alphabetically. For example: (Jones, 2019; Bennet and Podaysky, 2018; Fulton and Bowker, 2016).

Reference list

Authors must make sure that each reference that is used in the body text appears in the references list.

  • Books (under editorship) and books that are republished
    Note that there should be no spaces between the initials of the author(s), and that book editions are abbreviated as (2nd ed.) or (2nd revised ed.), and editor or editors are capitalised and abbreviated as Ed. or Eds. respectively. For example: House, R.J. Hanges, P.J., Javidan, J., Dorfman, P.W. and Gupta, V. 2004 (Eds.). Culture, leadership and organisations: The globe study of 62 societies. Thousand Oaks, Sage Publications. Bryman, A. and Bell, E. 2007. Business research methods (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Research journals
    The name of a journal should be italicised, and the nouns of it capitalised. The title of the article should be in normal lower case font. A comma should be placed before the volume number of the journal is introduced, which is followed by the issue number in parentheses, and a colon before the page issue number and colon, but a space should be placed directly after the colon. For example, Martin, S. and Scott, J.T. 2000. The nature of innovation market failure and the design of public support for private innovation. Research Policy, 29(1): 437-447.
  • Electronic sources with author(s) and author(s) unknown
    When citing websites, the titles of books, research journals, and annual reports should be italicised. However, the title of an article or the website home address itself should not be italicised. Titles of articles should be presented in normal lower case, and only proper nouns are capitalised. The date when a website was accessed should be presented in square brackets, followed by a full-stop. For example: Williams, M.T.N. 2005. Marketing and the internet. BizzCommunity (Online). Available: [Accessed: 12 February 2019]. Guidelines for using charts and graphs. 2005 (Online). Available:\ [Accessed: 12 February 2019].
  • Published conferences papers, dissertations and theses
    Note that unpublished dissertations and theses should be indicated as such and should not be italicised. For example: Loebbecke, C., Bartcher, P., Weiss, T. and Weniger, S. 2010. Consumers’ attitudes to digital rights management in the German trade e-book market. Paper read at the International Conference on Mobile Business (ICBM) and Global Mobility Round Table. Athens, Greece. Van den Boogart, M.R.V. 2006. Uncovering the social impact of Facebook on a college campus. Master’s thesis. Manhattan: Kansas State University.
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